Glossary

Accelerators – Material additives used to accelerate, or reduce, the setting time of concrete causing it to harden faster.

ADA Compliance Services – Provide all necessary services for handicap
code compliance, from ramps, truncated domes to signage and striping.

Aerated concrete – Concrete that is formed using gas-forming admixtures that form hydrogen or oxygen bubbles in the cement mix.

Aggregate – A mixture of sand, rock, crushed stone, expanded materials, or particles that improve the formation and flow of cement paste and improve the concrete’s structural performance.

Agitator truck – Vehicle designed to take ready-mixed concrete and deliver it ready to be used at a construction site. The truck bed contains a large barrel or drum that is used to continuously roll or agitate the concrete mixture keeping it from solidifying before use.

Air content – The volume of air present in a concrete or mortar mix. A controlled air content prevents concrete from cracking during the freeze/thaw cycle.

Asphalt – A brownish-black solid or semisolid mixture of bitumens obtained from native deposits or as a petroleum byproduct, used in paving. When heated to the temperature of boiling water, it becomes able to be poured. Asphalt should not be confused with tar, a similar looking substance made from coal or wood and incompatible with petroleum derivates.

Asphalt Grinding – Is used to remove damaged asphalt or to prepare an existing surface for an overlay. The ground
asphalt makes an excellent base material. It can also be recycled into new asphalt.

Asphalt Pulverizing – Pulverizing is the process of breaking up your existing asphalt into an aggregate, and blend “new” aggregate with your existing base aggregate, which is compacted, graded, compacted again, at which time it is ready for paving. Pulverizing is a very cost effective way to reconstruct your existing pavement. This process eliminates the expensive excavation and trucking of your existing asphalt, and as a significant bonus, adds to your base aggregate thickness, thereby giving you a stronger base than what had existed previously.

Ballast – A layer of coarse stone, gravel, slag, etc., over which concrete is placed

Bar – A deformed steel member used to reinforce concrete.

Batter – A slope that is wider at the bottom than at the top.

Bedding – A prepared base for masonry or concrete.

Blanket – Insulation used for protecting fresh concrete during curing.

Block out – The installing of a box or barrier within a foundation wall to prevent the concrete from entering an area. For example, foundation walls are sometimes “blocked” in order for mechanical pipes to pass through the wall, to install a crawl space door, and to depress the concrete at a garage door location.

Board foot – The basic unit of measurement for lumber. One board foot is equal to a 1″ thick board, 12″ in width and 1′ in length.

Burlap – Material often used to protect newly finished concrete from rain as well as maintaining moisture in a slab.

Calcium chloride – An additive used in ready-mix to accelerate the curing, usually used during damp conditions.

Casting – Pouring a liquid material, or slurry, like concrete, into a mold or form whose physical form it will take on as it solidifies.

Cement – A building material made by grinding calcined limestone and clay to a fine powder, which can be mixed with water and poured to set as a solid mass or used as an ingredient in making mortar or concrete. Also known as the gray powder that is the “glue” in concrete.

Cold-Planning – Typically removes 1″ to 4″ of surface asphalt or 1″ – 2″ of concrete allowing for the application of a thin overlay or wearing surface which preserves ancillary structures (e.g. curb and gutter) but allows improvements to the grade and surface of the pavement section. When used for full roadway reconstruction, cold planning is also capable of removing up to 12 inches of paving material and base in a single pass. Another cold planning application is for slot cutting of only badly deteriorated sections of roadway – then full depth paving to restore an otherwise good road. This helps preserve or correct grade structure and cleans up rutted or cracked surfaces. It also improves bonding and surface quality and reduces costs of roadway rehabilitation.

Concrete – A hard, strong building material created by combining a mineral
(which is usually sand, gravel, or crushed stone) a binding agent
(natural or synthetic cement), chemical additives, and water. It is an
excellent material to be used in road building.

Concrete wheel stops – Concrete blocks that make sure vehicles stop where they’re supposed to.

Consolidation – Compaction usually accomplished by vibration of newly placed concrete to minimum practical volume, to mold it within form shapes and around embedded parts and reinforcement, and to eliminate voids other than entrained air.

Fabric Overlays – Provide a waterproof membrane to protect
the base, and will also retard reflective cracking.

Grading – The surfacing or leveling of the ground.

Paving – Laying of concrete.

Seal coating – Process of applying a protective coating to a asphaltic concrete pavement. Primarily used on drives, driveways, and parking areas, this coating protects asphalt from the damaging effects of petroleum products. It also fills surface cracks to prevent water from entering and damaging the base material.
Seal coating protect and extend the life of asphalt and its deep black smooth appearance is visually appealing as well. It also means that the street does not need to undergo reconstruction more often.

*Seal coating should be done every 2-4 years for best results.*

Slurry – A thin mixture of a liquid, especially water, and any of several finely divided substances, such as cement, plaster of Paris, or clay particles. The mixture is used for pumping or for wash over a surface.

Striping – Professional Line Striping assists your visitors in the safe use of your parking lot. It directs traffic to the proper route of entrance and exit, allowable areas to park, loading zones, crosswalks, and defines drive aisles that are wide enough to avoid accidents with cars and pedestrians. Properly designed parking spaces also maximize the number of cars you can safely accommodate.

*Customers appreciate a well designed and well marked parking system. The parking lot is the first thing that customers or visitors see. A freshly painted parking lot can lend an attractive impression to the overall image of your property.*

Insulating Material – a material that reduces or prevents the transmission of heat or sound or electricity.

Lath and Plaster – a building material consisting of thin strips of wood that provide a foundation for a coat of plaster.

Lumber, Timber – the wood of trees cut and prepared for use as building material.

Mortar – used as a bond in masonry or for covering a wall.

Roofing Material – building material used in constructing roofs.

Wearing Course – A road’s top layer, which directly supports moving vehicles, is called the wearing course. It is made of a solid layer of pavement and is designed to be smooth and to withstand erosion from traffic and weather. Two main types of pavements are used÷bituminous, or flexible, pavement and concrete, or rigid, pavement. Bituminous pavement is cheaper and easier to construct, but it requires more maintenance. Concrete pavement lasts for a very long time with minimal upkeep but is much more expensive and time-consuming to build.

Bituminous Pavement – Bituminous pavements are made with by-products of petroleum, such as asphalt. Weather and seasonal changes can cause roadways and the earth below them to rise or fall slightly. As these natural shifts occur, bituminous pavements allow the road surface to bend or flex slightly without breaking.
Bituminous material softens when heated and can be prepared and applied in a wide range of concentrations. Thin layers of bituminous material are sometimes applied with a pressure sprayer to the base course or the top course. The bituminous material seeps into the crushed rock and penetrates the tiny spaces between the compacted rocks, binding the aggregate together. To provide traction for moving traffic, a thin layer of aggregate may then be spread over the bituminous material and compacted.

Shake, Shingle – building material used as siding or roofing.

Siding – material applied to the outside of a building to make it weatherproof.

Staff – building material consisting of plaster and hair; used to cover external surfaces of temporary structure (as at an exposition) or for decoration.

Wattle and Daub – building material consisting of interwoven rods and twigs covered with clay.

Gravel – Gravel is the princess of paving materials, and in all probability the oldest paving material. Small stones were beaten into the earth to form pavements in ancient gardens. In modern parks and gardens gravel paving has the enormous advantage of allowing sustainable drainage. It is of course important to select a high quality paving gravel. River-washed round gravel paving is soft and beautiful but not-so-easy to walk on. Sharp gravel in a range of particle sizes (‘ungraded gravel’) self-binds to form a smooth and stable pavement. Described as stabilisé, it is a widely used paving material in French parks and gardens.

Micro-resurfacing – Micro-resurfacing is the application of a Polymer Modified Emulsion Base. The entire road surface is overlaid (the material is placed over top of the existing asphalt surface of the street) with a 1/2 to 3/4 inch of material. The depth of material placed on the street is determined by the condition of the existing road surface. If the road surface is in fair condition a 1/2 inch of material is used. If the surface is in poor condition 3/4 inch of material is used.

The City of Pittsburgh has been using this process for two years. Using the Micro-resurfacing process should extend the life of an existing street 2 to 5 years (estimate).

Crack Sealing – Crack Sealing is the process where the street cracks are sealed using a Polymer Modified AC-20 liquid (AC-20 can also contain crumb-rubber recycled tires), and other types of Crack Sealing products. The sealing prevents water infiltration into the road base, thus preventing potholes. This process is performed during the early spring, and late fall months.

The current method used for the crack sealing process is Well Filling. This method fills the void of the crack up to the road surface; little or no material is placed on the actual road surface. A minimum 1 inch depth, and 1/2 inch width is need to use the Well Fill method. This is a cost effective way of extending road life 2 to 3 years.

Aggregates – There are aggregates all around us, but we take them for granted: they are to be found in parks, gardens, stadiums, trains, motor vehicles, subways and the weatherproof roofing of buildings. Most of the time, they are invisible: the frames of many structures and buildings around us are made of aggregates. Their main basic quality is their strength, which explains why they are often used to provide support. Research into high performance and bituminous concrete has provided clear evidence that the strength limits of materials are those of the aggregates of which they are composed. Thus, they make a vital contribution to the strength of fine materials.

Star Stones & Tiles Pvt. Ltd. – is a renowned processors and dealers in various stones, such as Granite, Marble, Kotah, Blue tandoor, Cadappah, Gokak stones. We have got one of the most modern plant in Pune. Our work has been widely approved in construction industry for over the years. Our processing activities such as mirror polishing, slicing, machines with slicing capacity of 2″ depth is unique in this field.

Paving Blocks – Paving Blocks is a whole new concept in paving material used in exterior or interior architecture. This concept is picking up fast in India due to its advantages over conventional flooring materials. Various patterns can be obtained using different paving blocks and / or different colours.

Fogle’s Asphalt Sealing – Fogle’s Asphalt Sealing specializes in driveway sealing & repair. Having your driveway sealed by Fogle’s will add beauty and value to your home. Don’t be fooled by others who will try to over charge you for watered down cheap asphalt sealant. Rely on the experience and quality material used by Fogle’s, You’ll be glad you did.

E-Road Green Paving Material – E-Road Green is a low cost material because it is a secondary product made from recycled waste concrete, and when it requires replacement it can be recycled again any number of times. It also features good economic efficiency as a product that makes use of resource-recycling technology as a recycled paving material that is making an invaluable contribution to the construction of the global environmentally friendly recycling-type society.

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